On March 12, 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered the first of his fireside chats as President of the United States. Originally developed as a tool to speak directly to constituents in the State of New York while serving as Governor in 1929, Roosevelt adopted the practice nationally in order to foster a direct dialogue between the office of the president and the American people. These chats owed to the proliferation of mass communication, particularly radio, allowing FDR to bring his voice directly into the homes of millions of Americans. The chats cultivated a deepened relationship between a nation scarred by economic depression and war and its leader.
Roosevelt delivered thirty of these special radio addresses between 1933 and 1944. The first address came eight days into Roosevelt’s first term, arriving on the heels of the nation’s “banking holiday.” From March 6 until March 13, the nation’s entire banking system was closed by the federal government, which passed the Emergency Banking Act and instated federal deposit insurance to shore up the nation’s woeful financial sector. Roosevelt, in plain and direct terms, spoke to the nation about the purpose of the banking holiday, and encouraged confidence in the fledgling system.
Nearly eleven years later in his final fireside chat on January 11, 1944, Roosevelt spoke about the need for a Second Bill of Rights focused on collective, economic rights. This speech was the crystallization of FDR’s four freedoms in policy terms, and argued for rights to housing, education, health care, and employment. This new economic Bill of Rights would never come to pass, though, as FDR died on April 12, 1945 and the post-World War II period became defined by Cold War politics.
Roosevelt’s fireside chats redefined the way that political leaders engaged their constituencies. FDR was the first president to bypass the traditional media in favor of direct, modern communication methods, leaving no room for misrepresentation or misquotation. His radio addresses helped to keep his approval ratings high during his tenure in office, and informed each subsequent president’s own approach to mass communication.